These are indications of a reading and spelling disability:

  • Essays that are not readable due to spelling mistakes
  • Written messages which are not "decipherable" although written in the first language
  • Spelling mistakes which do not show any systematics, because the same word is misspelled differently over and over again
  • Children in the 4th year of school who are still moving from word to word with their finger while reading and still do not understand the text they have read

All children who learn to read and write make mistakes at first. However, most children develop a routine in both writing and reading after a certain period of practice. The frequency of mistakes decreases, but not with some children. Here you have to look more closely and diagnostically determine whether there is a reading and spelling weakness.

If the assumption is confirmed, an individual learning plan is developed to support the child in a targeted way.


These are indications of arithmetic weakness:

  • If children have basic difficulties with mathematics (basic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, division)
  • Still count with their fingers
  • Do not recognize numbers as underlying quantities
  • Apply calculation rules without understanding the meaning
  • Cannot recognize calculation steps required in text tasks
  • Write correspondingly bad examinations and tests, although acceptable grades are achieved in other subjects

In such cases, one has to take a closer look, as in the case of reading and spelling weakness (LRS / dyslexia). It is again diagnostic to determine whether there is an arithmetic impairment.